Wednesday, March 29 2023
Egypt has been hit with the most serious anti-government demonstrations since President Hosni Mubarak came to power in 1981, testing the powerful security forces in a political bellwether for the Arab world.

Here are the main developments in Egypt  in 2011:

January 17
A 50-year-old man sets himself on fire outside Parliament, an apparent copycat of the suicide of a young Tunisian in mid-December, which unleashed an uprising that overthrew Tunisian president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.

January 18
A 25-year-old unemployed man dies after setting himself ablaze in the northern city of Alexandria. Another man, a lawyer in his forties, sets himself alight outside government headquarters in Cairo.

January 24
Leading opposition figure Mohamed ElBaradei says opponents of Egypt’s long-running regime should be able to follow the lead set by the toppling of Tunisia’s president.

January 25
Anti-government demonstrations bring several thousand people on to the streets across Egypt. Two demonstrators are killed in Suez after clashes with police and in Cairo a police officer dies after being beaten by demonstrators.

January 26
Thousands of people demonstrate in Egyptian towns, despite a strict ban imposed by the authorities. Egyptian police fire tear gas at protesters.
In Cairo a protester and a policeman are killed in clashes.
In Suez, 55 demonstrators and 15 police officers injured in clashes.

January 27
Security forces flood central Cairo.
Hundreds of protesters clash with police in Suez and Ismailiya.
A young man is shot dead by police in the Sinai town of Sheikh Zuwayed.
The White House warns the Egyptian government and protesters they have an “obligation” to avoid violence.
The European Union calls on Egypt to respect the right to protest.

January 28
Anti-regime protests come to a head after Friday prayers.
In Cairo riot police fire tear gas and rubber bullets to disperse tens of thousands of protesters, while in Suez a protester is killed and in Alexandria the governorate building is torched.
Internet services go down.
Nobel laureate ElBaradei joins thousands in Friday prayers in Cairo, a day after returning home and saying he is ready to “lead the transition”.
Mr Mubarak imposes a dusk-to-dawn curfew and calls on the army to assist beleaguered police in enforcing it.
The United States, Britain and Germany express concern about the violence, with Britain saying the protesters have “legitimate grievances”.
Protesters torch the headquarters of the ruling National Democratic Party.

January 29
Tens of thousands of protesters flood Cairo streets, ignoring an extended 4pm to 8am curfew, also applied in Alexandria and Suez.
Clashes break out with security forces.
Three people are killed in the capital while a mob in Rafah kills three police.
The nationwide death toll since Tuesday reaches at least 51.
Violent clashes in Ismailiya.
The army calls on Egyptians to protect themselves against looters. Dozens of shops ransacked in Cairo.
The resignation of the government, promised by Mr Mubarak, is announced.
Ahmed Ezz, widely seen as a linchpin of a corrupt regime, resigns from the National Democratic Party.
The banned Muslim Brotherhood, the best-organised opposition group, calls for a peaceful transfer of power through a transitional cabinet.
Mr ElBaradei says Mr Mubarak “must go”.
Influential cleric Yusuf al-Qaradawi urges Mubarak to step down for the good of the country.
Egyptian intelligence chief Omar Suleiman sworn in as vice president, the first such post to be held in Mr Mubarak’s 30-year presidency.

January 30
Thousands of convicts break out of prisons.
Egyptian warplanes make deafening low passes over protesters thronging the city centre as Mubarak visits central military command.
The opposition charges Mr ElBaradei with negotiating with the regime.
Pan-Arab satellite television channel Al Jazeera is ordered to close in Egypt.
The United States and several other governments prepare to evacuate their nationals from Egypt.
The White House says that in calls to regional leaders President Barack Obama has voiced support for “an orderly transition to a government that is responsive to the aspirations of the Egyptian people”.
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu says Israel is carefully watching developments.
The six days of nationwide protest have left at least 125 people dead.
Police ordered back onto the streets as the curfew is extended to run from 3pm to 8am.
Parliament Speaker Fathi Surur says the results of 2010’s fraud-tainted parliamentary elections will be revised.
Previous protests

March 2005 – Street protests by the Kefaya (Enough) Movement draw hundreds across Egypt to oppose a fifth term for Mr Mubarak or any attempt to install his son in his place.

May 2005 – Parliament votes to change the constitution to allow contested presidential elections, dismissing opposition complaints that strict rules would still prevent genuine competition. A referendum overwhelmingly confirms the constitutional change.

September 2005 – Mr Mubarak is sworn in for a fifth consecutive term after winning the country’s first contested presidential elections on September 7.

December 2005 – The Muslim Brotherhood increase their seats in parliament after an election marred by violence, but Mubarak’s party retains a big majority. Eight people were killed on the last day of voting on December 7.

November 2006 – Mr Mubarak says he will retain his responsibilities for the rest of his life.

June 2009 – US president Barack Obama in a speech in Cairo calls for a “new beginning” in ties between Washington and the Islamic world.

March 2010 – Former UN nuclear chief Mohamed ElBaradei makes a first public appearance after his return to Egypt in February. Mr ElBaradei has said he would consider a presidential bid if demands are met, including constitutional changes to limit power.

March 2010 – Mr Mubarak returns to Egypt to reassume presidential powers after three weeks recovering from gall bladder surgery in Germany.

June 2010 – Police were accused of beating 28-year-old Khaled Said to death in a busy Alexandria street, after he posted videos online alleging police corruption. The death sparked angry demonstrations.

November 2010 – Parliamentary elections, which had been certified as free and fair by the government, were condemned by rights and opposition groups as rigged to ensure a crushing victory for Mr Mubarak’s party.


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